Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)

The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment, commonly known as the CEFR, was developed, building on extensive research, by the Council of Europe, Europe’s leading human rights organization. First published in 2001, the CEFR was updated and extended in 2020 with the publication of The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment – Companion Volume.

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Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB)

​​Since 1996, the Canadian Language Benchmarks (and their French counterpart Niveaux de compétence linguistique canadiens) have been recognized as the official Canadian standards for describing, measuring, and recognizing the language proficiency of adults and prospective immigrants in English and French.

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Action-Oriented Approach

The action-oriented approach (AOA) is one of the pillars of The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR). The AOA builds upon other perspectives, including the communicative approach, and encompasses theories such as the socio-constructivist and complexity theories. A theoretical framework of the AOA was released by Piccardo & North in 2019.

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The Neurolinguistic Approach

The neurolinguistic approach (NLA) is a new paradigm for the teaching and learning of languages developed by Joan Netten, Ph.D. and Claude Germain, Ph.D. Unveiled in 2010, the approach stems from research carried out by the authors to explain the success of Intensive French. The pilot program, conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador for an initial three-year period starting in 1998, was driven by teachers of Core French (also called Basic French in other provinces) who wanted their students to be able to spontaneously communicate in French by the end of high school (Grade 12).

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