FSL in Canada: Potential for Collaboration (2015)

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This report presents the strengths and challenges of French as a second language (FSL) teaching and learning and identifies areas for potential collaboration among provinces and territories with a goal of improving FSL education. The report was commissioned by the Council of Ministers of Education Canada (CMEC) and was produced by a team of consultants from CASLT in 2015.

FSL and ESL Teachers’ Perspectives of Their Professions: A Comparative Overview of Two National Survey Projects (2014)

ISBN/Code: 978‑0‑921238‑86‑7

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In 2006, in an effort to better understand teachers’ views about the L2 teaching profession, CASLT and Canadian Heritage jointly sponsored a national research survey of the working situation of FSL teachers in Canada. This research endeavor, led by Sharon Lapkin (OISE, University of Toronto), Alina MacFarlane (CASLT Research Officer), and Larry Vandergrift (University of Ottawa), resulted in the first ever report on the challenges faced by FSL teachers across Canada. CASLT and its board members subsequently recognized the importance of conducting a similar research survey with ESL teachers. Consequently, in 2011, CASLT commissioned a national research survey, headed by Leif French (Université du Québec à Chicoutimi) and Laura Collins (Concordia University), to examine the challenges faced by ESL teachers in different teaching contexts throughout Canada. The findings from the two surveys yielded valuable information on the perspectives of FSL and ESL teachers working in public and private (K 12) schools across Canada.

The present report provides a comparative overview of the findings of both survey projects and recommendations for future directions. The report is divided into two main sections. The first section contains a brief overview of the two surveys, highlighting the key similarities and differences in the teachers’ profiles and their teaching contexts. The second section outlines recommendations for key stakeholders and proposes areas for future investigations of L2 teaching in Canada.

Canadian Empirical Research on the CEFR: Laying the ground for future research (2013)

ISBN/Code: 978‑0‑921238‑88-1

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The objective of this annotated bibliography was twofold:

  • To gather and review the existing empirical research focusing on the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) in the Canadian context;
  • To identify common themes, foci, and/or notable gaps in the body of empirical studies conducted to date.

Only empirical studies based on data collected in Canada were considered for inclusion in this document. All studies focused on the CEFR and/or its various components including the European Language Portfolio (ELP), the CEFR self-assessment scales, and assessment tools that are based on the CEFR (e.g., Diplôme d’études en langue française, DELF; Diplôme approfondi de langue française, DALF; Test de connaissance du français, TCF; etc.). The author summarized these empirical studies, and then considered whether there were areas of convergence and/or divergence related to the foci, participants, methods, findings, implications, limitations, and/or future research described in this annotated bibliography.

Perceptions from ESL Teachers across Canada: A National Survey of the English Second Language (ESL) Teaching Profession (2011)

ISBN/Code: 978-0-921238-82-9

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The challenges underlying English Second Language (ESL) teaching have not been widely investigated in Canada. Consequently, in 2010, CASLT and Canadian Heritage jointly funded a national survey project that investigated the diverse challenges faced by ESL teachers working in schools across Canada. In March 2010, in-service ESL teachers teaching in provincially-recognized ESL programs in K-12 private and public schools across Canada were invited to participate in an online survey. The survey questionnaire consisted of 64 questions (e.g., likert-scale, multiple-choice and open-ended items) in which teachers were asked to provide information about the following key areas of their profession: support form key stakeholders, major challenges, teaching resources, job satisfaction and professional development.

This report presents the results of key questions for ESL teachers such as managing classes where students present various competency levels in ESL, special classes, student motivation and a lot more.

Profile and Pathways – Supports for Developing FSL Teachers' Pedagogical, Linguistic, and Cultural Competencies (2009)

ISBN/Code: 978-0-921238-69-0

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The report examines three broad categories related to FSL teaching: pedagogical skill, cultural competency, and proficiency in the target language. The report also provides information on a variety of current initiatives and activities related to the development of second language teacher skills and knowledge. National initiatives such as the Roadmap for Canada’s Linguistic Duality 2008–2013: Acting for the Future, the role of post-secondary institutions in promoting Canada’s linguistic duality, and the national agreement on internal trade are outlined, as are models of language teacher knowledge and skill development in Europe and in the United States. Following the recommendations in the report is a brief summary of three recent CASLT initiatives supporting language teacher development.

The Relative Effectiveness of Different Core French Delivery Models: Review of the Research (2008)

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This report summarizes existing knowledge about modes of delivery of core French across Canada. Possible avenues suggested by research for improving core French include assigning consistent, sufficient, and dedicated time to core French and increasing the length of class periods in compact core French formats. Programs could focus on using a more communications-oriented pedagogy with the use of e-pals, simulations, games, skits, drama, and conversation, in order to give students opportunities to develop real communication skills. Research also recommends the use of distance education models to supplement the limited classroom course offerings and ensure access for students in rural and remote areas.

Teaching FSL in Canada: Teachers’ Perspectives (2006)

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This report presents the results of a national survey of FSL teachers concerning teaching and working conditions. The report points out that gaining access to adequate teaching resources and to more professional development opportunities, as well as improving public opinion and community support towards FSL programs, are among the most pressing needs of FSL educators.

An Examination of Intensive French: A Pedagogical Strategy for the Improvement of French as a Second Language Outcomes in Canada (2005)

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This report presents the results of study of the effectiveness of the Intensive French programs and the possibility that they could rejuvenate Core French programs.

Core French Teachers and Technology: Classroom Application and Belief Systems (2001)

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A report on Core French teachers’ belief systems regarding technology in the classroom, their experiences with technology, factors that influence the use of technology in Core French, as well as their willingness to do professional development via technology, based on responses from surveys sent out to Core French teachers across Canada.

Professional Development for Teachers of Core French and ESL (in French-language schools) (2000)

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This report includes the objectives, methodology, and results for university involvement in pre-service and in-service education for Core French and ESL teachers and a needs assessment for Professional Development of Core French and ESL teachers in Canada: Case Studies. The final section contains a summary of the study, recommendations, and concluding comments.

Multicultural Education: The State of the Art (1992 to 1996)

The Multicultural Education Project (1992–1996), led by Keith A. McLeod, addressed the concept of multicultural education as a fundamental aspect of all classrooms and schools. Five reports look at the state of multicultural education in Canada, where we are, and what we have achieved.

pdf linkReport 1 – The National Study

pdf linkReport 2 – Studies of Canadian Heritage (11.5 MB)

pdf linkReport 3 – L’éducation multiculturelle : école et société (in French) (11.7 MB)

pdf linkReport 4 – The Challenges and the Future

pdf linkReport 5 – Multicultural Education: A Place to Start – A Guideline for Classrooms, Schools and Communities: Diversity in Canada

National Core French Study: A Model for Implementation (1994)

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This document helps teachers translate the research of the National Core French Study (1990) into practical application in the classroom. Two of its most valuable assets are 1) classroom-ready teaching units for grades 4–6, 7–9, and 10–12 and 2) a list of experiential goals.

National Core French Study (1990)

This four-year study, which culminated in 1989, presents a conceptual framework for a multidimensional, four-syllabus curriculum. The study was initiated in 1984 by the late H. H. Stern, former Director of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). The National Core French Study (NCFS) has provided core French with a major research foundation for a revised core French curriculum and teaching strategies.

pdf linkLe syllabus langue (in French)

pdf linkThe Communicative/Experiential Syllabus

pdf linkLe syllabus culture (in French)

pdf linkLe syllabus de formation langagière générale (in French)

pdf linkThe Evaluation Syllabus

pdf linkA Synthesis


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